What Are the Rarest Cancers? Top 10 Cancer Chart

Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland tumor 51 cases
  • Salivary glands
  • Tongue
  • Palate
  • Swelling
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Ulceration
Treatable with surgery High survival rate Heart cancer Reported one to two patients per year Heart
  • Heart failure
  • Irregular heartbeat
Yes The 5-year survival rate is 17 percent Ewing’s sarcoma 3 per 1 million people
  • Bone or soft tissue of the pelvis
  • The femur (thigh bone)
  • The humerus (upper arm bone)
  • The ribs
  • The mandible (jaw)
  • The clavicle (collar bone)
  • A lump near the skin that feels warm and soft to the touch
  • Persistent low fever
  • Limping because the legs hurt
  • Bone pain that worsens while exercising or during the night
  • Broken bones that happen without an injury
  • Weight loss
  • Feeling tired constantly
  • Paralysis or loss of bladder control if the tumor occurs near the spine
Yes The 5-year survival rate for tumors that have not spread is about 70 percent and 30 percent for tumors that have spread to other locations Thymic carcinoma 400 cases per year Thymus gland
  • A cough that does not go away
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • A hoarse voice
  • Swelling in the face, neck, upper body, or arms
Yes The 5-year survival rate is between 30 and 50 percent Wilms’ tumor 1 in 10,000 children each year (about 500 to 650 in the United States) Kidneys
  • An abdominal mass
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Blood in the urine
  • Nausea or vomiting or both
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Shortness of breath
  • High blood pressure
Yes High: The 5-year survival rate is about 90 percent Merkel cell carcinoma About 2000 cases in the United States each year Skin cancer typically found on the face, head, or neck
  • Painless, shiny lumps of the skin
  • Red, pink lumps
Yes The 10-year survival rate of about 57 percent (about 71 percent if caught early) Glioblastoma (a type of brain tumor) 0.59 to 5 cases per 100,000 people Found in the brain
  • Headaches
  • Nausea
  • Memory loss
  • Difficulty balancing 
  • Vision problems
Yes Low: People live less than a year after diagnosis Hepatoblastoma 50 to 75 new cases Liver
  • Pain or swelling in the abdomen
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
Yes The five-year survival rate in children is 81.5 percent Male breast cancer About 2550 cases each year in the United States Male breast tissue
  • Redness or sores on the chest or nipple area
  • An inverted nipple (nipple is pulled inward)
  • Discharge from the nipple
  • Redness or scaling of the skin covering the breast
  • Thickening of the breast tissue
  • Nipple pain
  • Enlarged lymph nodes under the arm
Yes The five-year survival rate is 84 percent Fibrosarcoma 5 per 1 million A type of soft tissue cancer that begins in fibrous tissue, which holds bones, muscles, and other organs in place
  • Pinched nerve
  • Unusual swelling
  • Unintended weight loss
  • A painful soft lump
Yes The five-year survival rate is 40 to 60 percent

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